**Intense Tech with Defense Mech – ADSR Makes Life Easier!** -Posted November 29, 2020 by [DEFENSE MECHANISM](https://defensemech.com) *Note: [traducción al Español por Pixel Guy encontrado aquí](../es/18-el-adsr-hace-la-vida-mas-facil.md.html).* Hello and welcome to another edition of Intense Tech! This time we'll be taking a look at a relatively new feature introduced in version 8.1.0: pulse and noise instrument ADSR! This is a pretty big upgrade from the old envelopes, so we'll examine what's new and different. We'll also cover a pretty substantial change from previous versions: the change from hardware to software volume in 8.8.0. Let's dig in! -------------------------------------------------------------------- Attacking the Volume Learning Curve -------------------------------------------------------------------- ADSR, which stands for Attack-Decay-Sustain-Release, refers to four stages of volume that are usually considered when shaping a sound. This can be visualized as the following: ***************************************** * . * * / \ * * / \ * * / '-------------------. * * / \ * * / \ * * / \ * * Attack Decay Sustain Release * ***************************************** A sound with a long attack starts at a low volume and increases volume slowly, whereas a sound with a short attack increases to a loud volume nearly instantaneously; likewise, a sound with a short decay will quickly fade to silent, but a long decay allows the sound to fade out slowly. Sustain allows you to optionally set a constant volume if the note is held. Lastly, setting a short or long release will allow the note to fade quickly or slowly, respectively, to silence from the sustained volume after the note is released. Like sustain, this is also optional, and may have no effect if sustain is not enabled. With all that explained, we can begin to discuss how the ADSR works in LSDj. You may already be familiar with the previous instrument envelopes, as well as E commands, where the first digit represents an initial volume of `0` through `F`, and the second digit represents the decay: values of `1` through `7` *decrease* volume where `1` is the fastest and `7` is the slowest, and values `9` through `F` *increase* volume where `9` is the slowest and `F` is the fastest. Values `0` and `8` sustain the note at the volume of the first digit indefinitely. Like the E commands, the ADSR works in a similar fashion. Rather than setting a volume for each distinct stage of Attack-Decay-Sustain-Release, each stage of the ADSR essentially acts as one E command. The first digit specifies the volume, and the second digit specifies the length of time to retain that volume. Whether the volume increases or decreases over that length of time is specified by the next stage of the ADSR, until the third stage is reached, when the volume will fade to zero. **Example: `54/00/--`** A sound with this ADSR would start at volume `5`, then decay with speed `4` to silence. **Example: `03/A2/71`** A sound with this ADSR would start at volume `0`, quickly increase at speed `3` to volume `A`, then quickly decrease at speed `2` to volume `7`, and quickly fade to silence at speed `1`. **Example: `74/07/43`** A sound with this ADSR would start at volume `7`, then decay with speed `4` to volume `0`, then increase slowly at speed `7` to volume `4`, then fade to silence at speed `3`. Upgrading Volume Control with New Versions ------------------------------------------ In all versions of LSDj before 8.8.0, the volume for pulse and noise is controlled by the Game Boy hardware. An unfortunate side effect is that when hardware envelope is changed, the pulse or noise channel's sound is reset, which results in an audible click. In the noise channel this also results in a slight change in the tone of the noise for an instant after resetting. Therefore it was not possible to achieve smooth transitions between stages of the ADSR. However, beginning with version 8.8.0, software has taken over control of the volume! Volume changes now happen without any reset of the sound, resulting in smooth uninterrupted volume changes for pulse and noise channels. Using the volume column in tables no longer generates clicks either, offering yet another method of click-free control. E commands work as before to maintain compatibility with older songs, but software ADSR adds more: speed `1` is extremely short, while speed `F` is a bit longer than the previous speed `7`. Here's a chart that shows the best correspondence of the old hardware envelopes to the new software ADSR: | --|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|--|-- **Software** | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | A | B | C | D | E | F **Hardware** | 0 | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | - | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6, 7 | - | - | - As you can see, we have five lengths that are faster than the fastest hardware envelope, and three that are longer than the longest! Using the faster software speeds gives us very fine control over the attack and decay, which is extremely useful when designing percussion instruments, especially at slow tempos. Setting the length to `0` always sustains indefinitely at the specified volume. Instant Decay ---------------------- To create a sound that decays instantly, set the second or third stage of the ADSR to a length of `1`. The following example shows a 2-stage ADSR with instant decay. ![Instant decay](../media/adsrinst.mp4) Noise Percussion Transients --------------------------- Here are a couple examples of noise percussion with transients. The following video shows four hi-hats with a transient of volume `6` quickly lowered to volume `4` and then fading to silence, followed by four hi-hats that start at volume `4` and fade to silence. ![ADSR Hi-hat](../media/adsrchh.mp4) Do you notice the extra impact of the first four hi hats? Although it's subtle, even this simple adjustment can help hi-hats to cut through the mix. You can play with the volumes and lengths of both stages of the ADSR, and even use both instruments - maybe you want transients to only happen on the downbeats. The first example below is of a snare using E commands in a table with hardware volume in version 8.5.0. The second example is of a snare using transients in ADSR in version 8.9.6. ![Snare with transients in v8.5.0](../media/esnare.mp4) ![Snare with ADSR in v8.9.6](../media/adsrsnare.mp4) As you can see, it's now possible to achieve these sounds without resorting to placing E commands in an instrument table. At slow tempos, these transients can last less than a tick, which is impossible to achieve only controlling the volume from a table. You may also notice that the K command no longer causes a click at the end of the note. ***Important note: BGB does not support software envelope at all if it is running in Gameboy mode. If you use BGB, make sure you set the emulator to Gameboy Color, or the volume will not work correctly.*** Re-thinking Tremolo ------------------- One neat side-effect of ADSR is what happens when R commands are used. Because the R command can change the volume on each retrig, it's now possible to achieve a kind of tremolo effect. Here's an example: ![Tremolo with ADSR and R command](../media/tremolo.mp4) ------------------------------------------ I hope you enjoyed this tour through ADSR and software volume! Thanks to all my patrons for their support. If you'd like to offer support, please consider [joining me on Patreon](https://patreon.com/defensem3ch). It means a lot and it helps me continue to make and host this content, pay for translations, and get your input on what kinds of articles to write next!

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Thanks again for reading, and until next time, this is [DEFENSE MECHANISM](https://defensemech.com), signing off! ----------------------------------------- Previous: [ <-- The Joys Of Noise ](17-the-joys-of-noise.md.html) Next: [ New Noise and 9.1.0 News --> ](19-new-noise-and-910-news.md.html) ----------------------------------------